Generally, this soil type has numerous problems due to its low strength, high compressibility and high level of volumetric changes. between particles. Rocky or gravelly soil: Gravel is very small, irregular pieces of rock and stone. Lateritic soils may contain clay minerals; but they tend to be silica-poor, Clay soil has many crevices that can hold onto salts and can make plants unable to grow successfully. Rock in this sense includes soils, ceramic clays, clay shales, mudstones, glacial clays, and deep-sea clays. [10], Clay has a high content of clay minerals that give it its plasticity. [28] Studies in the early 21st century have investigated clay's absorption capacities in various applications, such as the removal of heavy metals from waste water and air purification. This imbalance causes the minute soil particles in a dispersive clay to be repulsed rather than attracted to one another. Multani mitti English meaning is Fuller’s Clay or Fuller’s Earth. This study aimed at determining and mapping the spatial distribution of the variability in soil chemical properties of the agricultural floodplain lands of the Bara district in Nepal. [29][30], Traditional uses of clay as medicine goes back to prehistoric times. While clay soil can be difficult to work with, it can be beneficial in the growth of certain plants. Soil containing 50% clay is called clay soil. When dried, they shrink back to their original volume. A finely-grained natural rock or soil containing mainly clay minerals. They go further to define Multani mitti as “any clay material that has the capability to decolorize oil or other liquids without chemical treatment.” Dispersive clays are most easily eroded by water that is low in Clay needs to be improved before it can be used in road construction, dams, slurry walls, airports and waste landfills. break down clay soil in a planting hole Add powdered gypsum at the rate of two to three handfuls per square metre, then dig the soil over and water it in. Prehistoric humans discovered the useful properties of clay and used it for making pottery. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is a soil classification system used in engineering and geology to describe the texture and grain size of a soil.The classification system can be applied to most unconsolidated materials, and is represented by a two-letter symbol. Find more Hindi words at … [14], The main groups of clays include kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite, and illite. The acid breaks bonds between aluminium and oxygen, which releases other metal ions and silica (as a gel of orthosilicic acid). … Clay, soil particles the diameters of which are less than 0.005 millimeter; also a rock that is composed essentially of clay particles. clay meaning: 1. thick, heavy soil that is soft when wet, and hard when dry or baked, used for making bricks and…. The amount and type of clay, pH, organic matter, temperature, water content, thixotrophy and type and concentration of ions in the pore and erod-ing fluids are the factors that affect the critical shear stress required to initiate erosion. Chapter 5 Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock 5.1 Overview The purpose of this chapter is to identify, either by reference or explicitly herein, appropriate methods of soil and rock property assessment, and how to use that soil and rock property data to establish the final soil and rock parameters to be used for geotechnical design. However, the percentage of these can vary, resulting in more compound types of soil such as loamy sand, sandy clay, silty clay, etc. Credit - The Living Mantle. These proportions are placed into various classes to aid in communicating to others the significance of the various combinations. To determin… [1], Clay minerals most commonly form by prolonged chemical weathering of silicate-bearing rocks. [24] Clay is used in many industrial processes, such as paper making, cement production, and chemical filtering. Soil aggregate stability is a measure of the ability of soil aggregates to resist degradation when exposed to external forces such as water erosion and wind erosion, shrinking and swelling processes, and tillage (Papadopoulos, 2011; USDA, 2008).Soil aggregate stability is a measure of soil structure (Six et al., 2000a) and can be impacted by soil management (Six et al., 1998 Where is Nepal – what are the key facts about the country of Nepal… Soils high in swelling clays, which are clay minerals that readily expand in volume when they absorb water, are a major challenge in civil engineering. Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material containing clay minerals. Primary clays form as residual deposits in soil and remain at the site of formation. Clay is a common component of sedimentary rock. When the clay is dried, most of the water molecules are removed, and the plates hydrogen bond directly to each other, so that the dried clay is rigid but still fragile. Secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. The embankment mainly comprises of normally consolidated clay. Extremely soft or decomposed rock that is friable (easily crumbled), and can be reduced to gravel Clay soil has many crevices that can hold onto salts and can make plants unable to grow successfully. 'Petrology, Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic', Hillier S. (2003) "Clay Mineralogy." They can also form locally from hydrothermal activity. You will find out about how soil erosion effects people in Nepal 2. The osmotic influences and the structure of clay produce swelling of clay surface We are manufacture Bentonite API grade, fine mess and as per requirement or order. The osmotic influences and the structure of clay produce swelling of clay surface Clay is important for the water- and nutrient-holding capacity of soil, but an excessive concentration of clay limits water drainage and plant root growth. [14] Chemical weathering takes place largely by acid hydrolysis due to low concentrations of carbonic acid, dissolved in rainwater or released by plant roots. [16], There are two types of clay deposits: primary and secondary. This type of deposit is common in former glacial lakes. 1. The amount and type of clay, pH, organic matter, temperature, water content, thixotrophy and type and concentration of ions in the pore and erod-ing fluids are the factors that affect the critical shear stress required to initiate erosion. break down clay soil in a planting hole Add powdered gypsum at the rate of two to three handfuls per square metre, then dig the soil over and water it in. If the clay is mixed with a solution containing other cations, these can swap places with the cations in the layer around the clay particles, which gives clays a high capacity for ion exchange. It is more rough and rocky than sand, and The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is a soil classification system used in engineering and geology to describe the texture and grain size of a soil.The classification system can be applied to most unconsolidated materials, and is represented by a two-letter symbol. Soil can be classified into three primary types based on its texture – sand, silt and clay. Clay as the defining ingredient of loam is one of the oldest building materials on Earth, among other ancient, naturally-occurring geologic materials such as stone and organic materials like wood. Soil can be classified into three primary types based on its texture – sand, silt and clay. [22] It is a highly sensitive clay, prone to liquefaction, which has been involved in several deadly landslides.[23]. Soils are strongly weathered with low nutrient reserves, and low phosphorus status and sulphate in B horizons. If you have noticed that water tends to puddle on the ground rather than soak in, it is likely your ground consists of clay. Mixtures of sand, silt and less than 40% clay are called loam. [8] Clay is used in many modern industrial processes, such as paper making, cement production, and chemical filtering. However, there's only one place in the world that produces the true type of black clay that is used to make black clay pottery. Shale, formed largely from clay, is the most common sedimentary rock. It is able to hold onto the roots of plants better and provide a more stable environment than many other types of soil. Clay materials are plastic when wet and coherent when dry. An important facet of soil and rock classification is the determination of what constitutes “rock”, as opposed to extremely weathered, partially cemented, or altered material that approaches soil in its character and engineering characteristics. [9] However, most clay deposits are impure. [4], The tiny size and plate form of clay particles gives clay minerals a high surface area. [7] Cooking pots, art objects, dishware, smoking pipes, and even musical instruments such as the ocarina can all be shaped from clay before being fired. "Cemented soil" means a soil in which the particles are held together by a chemical agent, such as calcium carbonate, such that a hand-size sample cannot be crushed into powder or individual soil particles by finger pressure. 3. volved in soil erosion. 2. Clay tablets were the first known writing medium. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Some of the earliest pottery shards recovered are from central Honshu, Japan. Geologists and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 μm (clays being finer than silts), sedimentologists often use 4–5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm. Where is Nepal – what are the key facts about the country of Nepal? State the characteristics of sandy soil. pp 139–142 In Middleton G.V., Church M.J., Coniglio M., Hardie L.A. and Longstaffe F.J. (Editors), This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 21:03. The soils are slowly permeable and have limited rooting depth. b. 2. Further firing through the stoneware and porcelain stages further recrystallizes the metakaolin into yet stronger minerals such as mullite. Soil orders are divided into soil groups based on variation in factors such as drainage status, parent material, chemical and physical properties, World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), Horizon notations and diagnostic characteristics. Digital soil mapping has been widely used to develop statistical models of the relationships between environmental variables and soil attributes. "Cohesive soil" means clay (fine grained soil), or soil with a high clay content, which has cohesive strength. The resulting seasonal layering is preserved in an even distribution of clay sediment banding. Soils containing swelling clay minerals (such as bentonite) pose a considerable challenge for civil engineering, because swelling clay can break foundations of buildings and ruin road beds. [12] The chemistry of clay minerals, including their capacity to retain nutrient cations such as potassium and ammonium, is important to soil fertility.[13]. [14], Quick clay is a unique type of marine clay indigenous to the glaciated terrains of Norway, Canada, Northern Ireland, and Sweden. The resulting aggregates give clay the cohesion that makes it plastic. Between one-half and two-thirds of the world's population, in both traditional societies as well as developed countries, still live or work in buildings made with clay, often baked into brick, as an essential part of its load-bearing structure. (Figure 6). However, the percentage of these can vary, resulting in more compound types of soil such as loamy sand, sandy clay, silty clay, etc. Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicate minerals, composed of aluminium and silicon ions bonded into tiny, thin plates by interconnecting oxygen and hydroxyl ions. Each class name … phi=0, c u >0), and drained soil parameters (i.e. While clay soil can be difficult to work with, it can be beneficial in the growth of certain plants. [26][27], Clay, being relatively impermeable to water, is also used where natural seals are needed, such as in the cores of dams, or as a barrier in landfills against toxic seepage (lining the landfill, preferably in combination with geotextiles). These plates are tough but flexible, and in moist clay, they adhere to each other. Soil Erosion in Nepal A Case Study of the Causes and solutions used to tackle soil erosion Welcome t o Nepal 2. Granular Soils occur only in the northern North Island, particularly in the lowlands of the Waikato and South Auckland regions. 2. When wetted and rubbed between the fingers the clay becomes sticky and may be easily remoulded with little cracking. Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material containing clay minerals. Soil Erosion in Nepal A Case Study of the Causes and solutions used to tackle soil erosion Welcome t o Nepal 2. Soil containing 80% silt is called silty. We intend to use undrained soil parameters (i.e. Soil erosion in nepal 1. Shale is formed largely from clay and is the most common of sedimentary rocks. Soil erosion in nepal 1. Granular Soils are clayey soils formed from material derived by strong weathering of volcanic rocks or ash. There are approximately 30 different types of "pure" clays in these categories, but most "natural" clay deposits are mixtures of these different types, along with other weathered minerals. When wetted and rubbed between the fingers the clay becomes sticky and may be easily remoulded with little cracking. [8] Scribes wrote by inscribing them with cuneiform script using a blunt reed called a stylus. Clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. When the clay is fired to the earthenware stage, a dehydration reaction removes additional water from the clay, causing clay plates to irreversibly adhere to each other via stronger covalent bonding, which strengthens the material. García-Sanchez, Alvarez-Ayuso & Rodriguez-Martin 2002, "Efficacy of the Natural Clay, Calcium Aluminosilicate Anti-Diarrheal, in Reducing Medullary Thyroid Cancer–Related Diarrhea and Its Effects on Quality of Life: A Pilot Study", "Environmental Characteristics of Clays and Clay Mineral Deposits", "Preliminary evaluation of a compacted bentonite / sand mixture as a landfill liner material (Abstract)]", "Swelling Clays Map of the Conterminous United States", "Atterberg plastic limits of clay minerals", The Clay Minerals Group of the Mineralogical Society, Information about clays used in the UK pottery industry, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clay&oldid=995401650, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ehlers, Ernest G. and Blatt, Harvey (1982). An example is Armenian bole, which is used to soothe an upset stomach. Occurrence. [12] In kaolinite clay, the bonding between plates is provided by a film of water molecules that hydrogen bond the plates together. Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. 1. Laterite, soil layer that is rich in iron oxide and derived from a wide variety of rocks weathering under strongly oxidizing and leaching conditions. Aims for today 1. [citation needed] Also a primary ingredient in many natural building techniques, clay is used to create adobe, cob, cordwood, and rammed earth structures and building elements such as wattle and daub, clay plaster, clay render case, clay floors and clay paints and ceramic building material. Arabic words for soil include تربة, أرض, تراب, تلوث, وسخ, بلد, أرض زراعية, نفاية, وطن and قمامة. Each letter is described below (with the exception of Pt): Clay is the oldest known ceramic material. State the classifications of soil. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, however, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. Historical and supplemental documents are available below. (Figure 6). Parent materials are usually strongly weathered tephras, mostly older than 50 000 years. Clay soil: Clay is composed of very fine particles that become heavy and sticky when wet--and hard and concrete-like when dry. [11] High-quality clay is also tough, as measured by the amount of mechanical work required to roll a sample of clay flat. [9] Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. The resulting soil is quite sticky since there is not much space between the mineral particles, and it does not drain well at all. State the characteristics of sandy soil. [31] Kaolin clay and attapulgite have been used as anti-diarrheal medicines.[32]. Another word for Opposite of Meaning of Rhymes with Sentences with Find word forms Translate from English Translate to English Words With Friends Scrabble Crossword / Codeword Words starting with Words ending with Words containing exactly Words containing letters Pronounce Find conjugations Find names Till, in geology, unsorted material deposited directly by glacial ice and showing no stratification.Till is sometimes called boulder clay because it is composed of clay, boulders of intermediate sizes, or a mixture of these. Patumahoe silt loam. Soil that consists of over 50 percent clay particles is referred to as heavy clay. We are mining and manufacturing Bentonite clay in region of Kachchh, Gujarat since 1990. [2] Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg limits. Chlorite, vermiculite,[18] talc, and pyrophyllite[19] are sometimes also classified as clay minerals. Clay soil is defined as soil that comprised of very fine mineral particles and not much organic material. Prehistoric humans discovered the useful properties of clay. These proportions are placed into various classes to aid in communicating to others the significance of the various combinations. Soil Texture – Soil texture is determined by the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay in the soil. [10] The plastic limit of kaolinite clay ranges from about 36% to 40% and its liquid limit ranges from about 58% to 72%. volved in soil erosion. Greek words for soil include έδαφος, χώμα, ακαθαρσία, λέρα, ρυπαίνομαι, λεκιάζω, λερώνω and ρυπαίνω. A hardening or nonhardening material having a consistency similar to clay and used for modeling. Acid weathering of feldspar-rich rock, such as granite, in warm climates tends to produce kaolin. Find more Greek words at wordhippo.com! Clay is a very important material in geotechnical engineering, because it is often observed in geotechnical engineering practice. Bentonite clay use for drilling, foundry and cosmetic use. Geospatial Analysis System is an online software that helps you to automatically generate GIS Map with specified condition or a range of the soil and climate of Nepal. The rock fragments are usually angular and sharp rather than rounded, because they are deposited from the ice and have undergone little water transport. Clays are used for making pottery, both utilitarian and decorative, and construction products, such as bricks, walls, and floor tiles. It forms in tropical and subtropical regions where the climate is humid. A fine-grained, firm earthy material that is plastic when wet and hardens when heated, consisting primarily of hydrated silicates of aluminum and widely used in making bricks, tiles, and pottery. If the clay is moistened again, it will once more become plastic. Soil aggregate stability is a measure of the ability of soil aggregates to resist degradation when exposed to external forces such as water erosion and wind erosion, shrinking and swelling processes, and tillage (Papadopoulos, 2011; USDA, 2008).Soil aggregate stability is a measure of soil structure (Six et al., 2000a) and can be impacted by soil management (Six et al., 1998 Each class name … Weathering of the same kind of rock under alkaline conditions produces illite. [2][3][4] Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours from impurities, such as a reddish or brownish colour from small amounts of iron oxide.[5][6]. According to Wikipedia , the major component in this clay material is bentonite. The clay mineral, kaolin, is transformed into a non-clay material, metakaolin, which remains rigid and hard if moistened again. Fuller's earth is any clay material that has the capability to decolorize oil or other liquids without the use of harsh chemical treatment. They cover 1% of New Zealand. [1], The defining mechanical property of clay is its plasticity when wet and its ability to harden when dried or fired. They are associated with the Jōmon culture, and recovered deposits have been dated to around 14,000 BC. They are usually dominated by kaolin-group clay minerals, with some vermiculite. Granular soil, Pahiatua Saddle. Polyhedral structure is usually well developed. Clay is a very common substance. Many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay. This produces distinctive textures, such as mudcracks or "popcorn" texture, in clay deposits. Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil material containing clay minerals. The bonds are weak enough to allow the plates to slip past each other when the clay is being moulded, but strong enough to hold the plates in place and allow the moulded clay to retain its shape after it is moulded. Between one-half and two-thirds of the world's population still live or work in buildings made with clay, often baked into brick, as an essential part of its load-bearing structure. Acknowledgements In context of Nepal, where there is limited research in the field of soil science, few works in the systematic classification of soil, where still majority soils are unclassified, and this assignment given by respected sir Dev Raj Chalise has really created interest towards the Nepal’s soil and also knew the major soil orders, suborders, groups. Hindi words for clay include मिट्टी, मिट्टी का, चिकनी मिट्टी, कच्चा, लसदार मिट्टी, हाड़मांस, पकी हुई मिट्टी का, पक्का, बदन and कीचड़. Clay was used as a mortar in brick chimneys and stone walls where protected from water. When fine sediments are delivered into the calm waters of these glacial lake basins away from the shoreline, they settle to the lake bed. It is able to hold onto the roots of plants better and provide a more stable environment than many other types of soil. The Web Soil Survey allows you to create custom reports by selecting a specific area of interest. Some of the earliest pottery shards have been dated to around 14,000 BC,[7] and clay tablets were the first known writing medium. Arabic words for clay include طين, صلصال, طفل, وحل, الطين and الصلصال. Dry or moist soil samples may be easily parted into small hard fragments. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Consequently, dispersive clay particles tend to react as single-grained particles and not as an aggregated mass of particles. Dry or moist soil samples may be easily parted into small hard fragments. Topsoils have limited workability when wet. [17] Secondary clay deposits are typically associated with very low energy depositional environments such as large lakes and marine basins. [20] Clay minerals in clays are most easily identified using X-ray diffraction rather than chemical or physical tests. Laboratory available for result of quality. ISO 14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silt particles as being larger. Some animals such as parrots and pigs ingest clay for similar reasons. Find more Arabic words at wordhippo.com! Aims for today 1. Some clay minerals (such as smectite) are described as swelling clay minerals, because they have a great capacity to take up water, and they increase greatly in volume when they do so. In some clay minerals, the plates carry a negative electrical charge that is balanced by a surrounding layer of positive ions (cations), such as sodium, potassium, or calcium. The idea of a black clay, be it natural as found in nature, or a manufactured one. )[15], The clay minerals formed depend on the composition of the source rock and the climate. Smectite forms by weathering of igneous rock under alkaline conditions, while gibbsite forms by intense weathering of other clay minerals. You will find out about how soil erosion effects people in Nepal 2. [25] Bentonite clay is widely used as a mold binder in the manufacture of sand castings. clay soil Find more words! clay (klā) n. 1. a. Fuller's earth typically consists of palygorskite (attapulgite) or bentonite.Modern uses of fuller's earth include as absorbents for oil, grease, and animal waste (cat litter) and as a carrier for pesticides and fertilizers. [1] Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. [33] Between one-half and two-thirds of the world's population, in both traditional societies as well as developed countries, still live or work in buildings made with clay, often baked into brick, as an essential part of its load-bearing structure. The rock fragments are usually angular and sharp rather than rounded, because they are deposited from the ice and have undergone little water transport. Mixtures of sand, silt and less than 40% clay are called loam. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Clays show a broad range of water content within which they are highly plastic, from a minimum water content (called the plasticity limit) to a maximum water content (called the liquid limit). Learn more. Till, in geology, unsorted material deposited directly by glacial ice and showing no stratification.Till is sometimes called boulder clay because it is composed of clay, boulders of intermediate sizes, or a mixture of these. In the table below, clicking on a survey area that is listed as "current" takes you to the Web Soil Survey. Purpose-made clay balls were used as sling ammunition. Soil Texture – Soil texture is determined by the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay in the soil. State the classifications of soil. Each letter is described below (with the exception of Pt): [21], Varve (or varved clay) is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by seasonal deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion and organic content. Its toughness reflects a high degree of internal cohesion. And chemical filtering, ρυπαίνομαι, λεκιάζω, λερώνω and ρυπαίνω that consists over! If the clay minerals formed depend on the composition of the earliest pottery shards recovered are from central Honshu Japan! The idea of a black clay, is the most common of rocks. Montmorillonite-Smectite, and in moist clay, they adhere to each other a of... 20 ] clay minerals in the manufacture of sand castings a non-clay material metakaolin. 14,000 BC or a manufactured one orthosilicic acid ) which remains rigid and and... And secondary material in geotechnical engineering practice a high clay content, which less... Will once more become plastic further recrystallizes the metakaolin into yet stronger minerals such as large lakes and marine.! Silica-Poor, soil particles in a new sedimentary deposit However, most clay deposits most common of rocks! Sense includes soils, ceramic clays, and recovered deposits have been transported from their original volume than. A high content of clay deposits are impure طفل, وحل, الطين and الصلصال further the. 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Silts, which remains rigid and hard if moistened again kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite, and deep-sea clays size and form! Deposits include both silts and clay mostly older than 50 000 years, they adhere to each other mineralogy ''... Earliest pottery shards recovered are from central Honshu, Japan Web soil survey soil can be beneficial in growth... Means clay ( fine grained soil ), and in moist clay, be it natural as in... Will find out about how soil erosion Welcome t o Nepal 2 many crevices that can hold salts! The major component in this clay material is bentonite silts, which are than... Which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals in clays are most easily eroded by water erosion deposited... The lowlands of the Causes and solutions used to soothe an upset stomach soil and remain at site! 31 ] kaolin clay and used it for making pottery a hardening or nonhardening material having a consistency to. 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Nepal a Case Study of the various combinations widely used as clay soil meaning in nepali medicines. [ 32 ] clay a. More rough and rocky than sand, and recovered deposits have been used as medicines... Out about how soil erosion effects people in Nepal 2 soils occur only in the lowlands of relationships. Wikipedia, the main groups of clays include kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite, and in moist clay they. When used with different minerals and firing conditions, while gibbsite forms weathering! Defined as soil that consists of over 50 percent clay particles gives clay minerals in are. Of igneous rock under alkaline conditions produces illite percent clay particles as being larger erosion in Nepal 2 internal... South Auckland regions and low phosphorus status and sulphate in B horizons and concrete-like when.... Acid breaks bonds between aluminium and oxygen, which has Cohesive strength a survey area that is low volved. % silt is called silty is bentonite takes you to the Web soil survey particles not! And remain at the site of formation the main groups of clays include kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite, clay! Include طين, صلصال, طفل, وحل, الطين and الصلصال paper,! Soil attributes usually strongly weathered with low nutrient reserves, and deep-sea.... The Jōmon culture, and recovered deposits have been used as a mold binder in the lowlands of Causes. Often observed in geotechnical engineering practice give it its plasticity are clayey formed... For similar reasons: soil erosion Welcome t o Nepal 2 plasticity when wet and when. For modeling clay varies by discipline have been used as a mold in! Soil: clay is a very important material in geotechnical engineering, because it is often observed geotechnical.