Kappan 95, 38–42. Differentiated Instruction Provincial Research Review. This was done by a-priori defining consistent, transparent standards to identify relevant studies about within-class differentiated instruction. Res. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. 94, 160–181. Alternatively, teachers may apply divergent differentiation in which they strive for equality by dividing their efforts equally across all students, allowing for variation between students in the learning goals they reach, time they use, and outcomes they produce (Bosker, 2005). It is unclear however, how the materials and activities were made more appropriate for students' readiness (and learning style) and how they differed from the approach in the control condition that used traditional teaching. Additionally, the study addresses some contextual and personal factors that may affect teachers' differentiated instruction. Available online at: https://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=15684. 39, 239–259. (2011). Researchers and teachers lack a systematic overview of the current empirical evidence for different approaches to within-class differentiated instruction in secondary education. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2013.817442, Cheung, A. C. K., and Slavin, R. E. (2016). J. Educ. Available online at: http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-ub.rug.nl/login.aspx?direct=trueanddb=ericandAN=ED350777andsite=ehost-liveandscope=site, Kulik, J. The overall effect of d = +0.386 is comparable to that of the tiering intervention of Richards and Omdal (2007) discussed earlier. In this review, we will include information about relevant contextual and personal variables—when provided—into the interpretation of the literature. A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. Assess. Differentiated instruction purpose: The study is about differentiated instruction with the aim of addressing cognitive differences (e.g., readiness, achievement level, intelligence) or differences in motivation / interest or learning profiles (Tomlinson et al., 2003). Differentiated instruction is a pedagogical-didactical approach that provides teachers with a starting point for meeting students' diverse learning needs. Flipped classroom instruction for inclusive learning. Learn more about ASCD Conferences and Events. The role of environmental factors in beginning teachers' professional learning related to differentiated instruction. doi: 10.3102/00028312019003415, Kulik, C. C., Kulik, J. Technol. Differentiated instruction is a wonderful strategy but with a class of ESE students it is difficult to use without an assistant to help. (1996) on grouping in secondary education, within-class grouping was found to have a small positive effect (Cohen's d = + 0.12) on student outcomes. doi: 10.1002/tea.21338, Civitillo, S., Denessen, E., and Molenaar, I. For example, students may have better attitudes and motivation in differentiated classes in which teaching better matches their learning needs (Kulik and Kulik, 1982; Lou et al., 1996; Maulana et al., 2017; Van Casteren et al., 2017). Hancock, G. R., and Mueller, R. O. A recent study found that teachers across different countries infrequently adapt their instruction to student characteristics (Schleicher, 2016). (2014). This page mainly demonstrates that the label Differentiated Instruction holds no content. For instance, creating a safe and stimulating learning environment in which students feel welcomed and respected is essential (Tomlinson, 2014). The authors reported that the secondary students in the experimental group outperformed their counterparts in control classrooms on a science achievement test after the intervention. In a quasi-experimental study, four grade 6–8 teachers taught the 10 PALS intervention lessons to their classes and PALS team members taught another 24 classes. Pract. (2003) revealed studies showing that students achieve better results in mixed-ability classrooms in which the teacher differentiates instruction than in homogeneous classes were a more single-size approach is used. Grades. (2013). (2006). doi: 10.1080/02783190409554259, Cavanagh, S. (2014). doi: 10.1080/00131880701369651, Van de Grift, W. J. C. M., Helms-Lorenz, M., and Maulana, R. (2014). For more information about ASCD Professional Learning Services, contact the Program Management Team: Subscribe to ASCD Express, our free email newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your email inbox twice a month. A number of selected studies use a macro-adaptive approach to differentiated instruction (Richards and Omdal, 2007; Altintas and Özdemir, 2015a,b; Bal, 2016; Bikić et al., 2016). Mastery learning has also been incorporated into broader interventions in secondary education such as the IMPROVE method (Mevarech and Kramarski, 1997). Sch. A content analysis of review literature. From a recent meta-analysis on flipping the classroom (Akçayir and Akçayir, 2018), we found one study in secondary education in which remediation in the classroom was mentioned as being part of the intervention. When we look at the operationalizations of differentiated instruction in the two larger studies, we see that teachers used variations of learning tasks that were designed to better match the learning needs of different ability groups. Pedagog. Explore these courses, or browse the online course catalog for more options. Our calculation based on these means shows a small non-significant intervention effect of d = +0.133 (see Table 2). And if the aims differ per subgroup, they should ideally report these separate effects too. In the papers, the authors describe similar characteristics of mastery learning in their theoretical framework, such as specifying learning goals, breaking down the curriculum into small units, formative assessment, using corrective instruction for students who did not reach mastery, and retesting. Support and sabotage: principals' influence on middle school teachers' responses to differentiation. However, even within the most well-known approaches like ability grouping, the empirical evidence was limited. This overview of the state of the art within this theme may inform further research initiatives. EURASIA J. 19, 134–142. When outcomes were reported in multiple formats in the paper, we chose the means and standard deviations to come to transparent and comparable outcomes. The effect of the developed differentiation approach on the achievements of the students. Teacher Workstation Differentiated Instruction 1/9 ©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada (www.LearnAlberta.ca) 2005 In any classroom, students will have a range of abilities, needs and interests. Mittee and Obaitan report a large effect of the mastery learning approach of d = +1.461 based on an experiment in which about 400 students from four schools were allocated to a mastery learning or a control condition (see Table 2). Outcome measurement: The dependent variables/outcome measures include quantitative measures of achievement. ASCD Faculty members are available for on-site capacity-building professional development on differentiated instruction. doi: 10.1002/9780470743386, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., and Rothstein, H. R. (2010). Several contextual and personal factors may affect the implementation. A recent review and meta-analysis of differentiated instruction practices in primary education shows that differentiated instruction has some potential for improving student outcomes, when implemented well (Deunk et al., 2018). As the educational system transitioned to grading schools, it was assumed that children of the same age learned similarly. The effects of differentiation of content in problem-solving in learning geometry in secondary school. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2012.07.003. A narrative description of the selected papers shows that differentiated instruction has been operationalized in many different ways. What differentiated instruction means. Res. Pract. 3. Teachers attended a 1-day workshop about adaptive teaching by means of: modifying time, increasing or decreasing the number of items to be learned or completed, increasing the level of support, changing the input or the way the material is presented, changing the output, adapting the amount of active participation, changing to alternate goals and expectations, adapting the level of difficulty for each individual, and providing different instruction and materials. Available online at: http://pedagogischestudien.nl/download?type=document&identifier=640319. A., and Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1990). Differentiation typically includes pro-active and deliberate adaptations of the content, process, product, learning environment or learning time, based on the assessment of students' readiness or another relevant student characteristic such as learning preference or interest (Roy et al., 2013; Tomlinson, 2014). According to the U.S. Department of Education, “Learning goals are the same for all stud… Educ. Additionally, we greatly value the consultations regarding the analyses with our colleagues Dr. Hester de Boer and Prof. Dr. Roel Bosker from GION Educational Sciences. In our sample of studies, differentiated instruction was mostly applied to teaching mathematics and science. They mainly reported to make adaptations at the individual level by, for instance, providing students with individual tasks (tiered assignments), adapting the number of tasks, or providing more time to work on tasks. Second, in a full text review, two coders applied the inclusion criteria again after reading the full paper. Valiande, S., and Koutselini, M. I. doi: 10.3102/00346543060003471, Slavin, R. E. (1990b). Effect sizes: The paper provides enough information to calculate or extract effect sizes about the effectiveness of the differentiated instruction approach. Therefore, an additional search was performed in ERIC and PsycINFO with more specific keywords associated with differentiated instruction. In empirical studies, differentiated instruction has been found to be a separate domain of teaching, while at the same time being strongly interrelated with other high quality teaching behaviors (Van de Grift et al., 2014; Maulana et al., 2015; Van der Lans et al., 2017, 2018). Student ages varied from about 11 to 17 years old (see Table 2). Inspirerende Inzichten uit de Cognitieve Psychologie voor Leerkrachten. The selection includes studies on generic teacher trainings for differentiated instruction, ability grouping and tiering, individualization, mastery learning, heterogeneous grouping, and remediation in flipped classroom lessons. Teachers often used “learning plans” as well as tasks in which students could take individual learning trajectories varying the content or learning rate. To assure the quality of the coding process, full-text coding of both coders was compared. A selective synthesis of the experimental literature on dynamic assessment. Teach. Immediate, unplanned adaptations to student needs, so-called “micro-adaptations” (Corno, 2008), are not included in the theoretical model in Table 1, since differentiated instruction is—by nature—planned and deliberate (Coubergs et al., 2013; Tomlinson, 2014; Keuning et al., 2017). In this approach, subject matter is divided into small blocks or units. ASCD members can access all webinars by logging in. However, studies on the effects of fully computerized adaptive programs (e.g., with adaptive feedback or intelligent tutors) or differentiation approaches for which an external teacher (or tutor) is needed (such as pullout interventions) were excluded. Mainstream education: The study was performed in a mainstream school setting (in a regular school, during school hours). Differentiated instruction is a pedagogical-didactical approach that provides teachers with a starting point for meeting students' diverse learning needs. 14, 581–592. These empirical findings give some indication of the possible benefits of differentiated instruction. Sch. However in 1912, achievement tests were introduced, and the scores revealed the gaps in student’s abilities … The studies for our best evidence synthesis were identified in a number of steps. (2006). Effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model since we have no reason to assume that the studies are “identical” in the sense that the true effect size is exactly the same in all studies (Borenstein et al., 2010). The intervention was the Prevention through Alternative Learning Styles (PALS) program aimed at prevention of alcohol-, tobacco-, and other drug (AOTD) abuse. Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Educ. Two other studies focused on individualization. Kulik, C. C., and Kulik, J. Res. See Appendix C for a flow-chart of the selection process. Bhagat et al. Lastly, one of the studies embedded remediation and collaboration in a flipped-classroom format illustrating how differentiated instruction can be applied within different approaches to teaching (Bhagat et al., 2016). Since none of the selected papers provided this number, we assumed a correlation of 0.80 in the analyses since it is reasonable to assume such a pre- post correlation in studies in secondary education (Swanson and Lussier, 2001; Cole et al., 2011). To our knowledge, there are no specific reviews of the literature or meta-analyses summarizing the effects of tiering on student achievement, but the approach is often combined with homogeneous (ability) grouping. Effect of mastery learning approach on senior school students' academic performance and retention in circle geometry. Consequently, the instruction that is designed to be the same for all the students in a classroom is destined to fail, at least for many of them. doi: 10.1080/00220671.1988.10885824, Hall, E. F. (1992). Effective programmes in reading and mathematics: lessons from the Best Evidence Encyclopaedia. To further reflect on the findings from the selected studies in respect to our research questions, we will give a more detailed description of the study designs, implementations and findings here. Ability grouping is not just tracking anymore. 10. (2018) and Slavin (1990a). In the study by Huber et al. 21, 715–730. 18, 947–967. J. Educ. 24, 31–54. In Table 2, the characteristics and individual effects of the studies included in our review are summarized. Start This article has been rated as Start-Class on the project's quality scale. Meas. (2009), teachers learned about adaptive teaching in a workshop, and were asked to incorporate it into their lessons. (2014). Although differentiated instruction has gained a lot of attention in practice and research, not much is known about the status of the empirical evidence and its benefits for enhancing student achievement in secondary education. The best-evidence strategy is particularly suitable for topics—such as differentiated instruction—for which the body of literature is expected to be rather small and diverse. In addition, classroom observations of differentiated instruction or adaptive teaching behavior have been used (Cassady et al., 2004; Van Tassel-Baska et al., 2006; Van de Grift, 2007). 45, 283–292. Students in the ability grouping condition outperformed the control students with a moderate positive effect of d = +0.539 (see Table 2). doi: 10.3102/0034654314564881, Van der Lans, R. M., Van de Grift, W. J. C. M., and van Veen, K. (2017). Wambugu and Changeiywo randomly divided four classes from four schools over the mastery learning or the experimental condition. More research would be needed to clarify to which extent the differentiated content improved the effectiveness of the problem-based learning approach. During the lesson, students discussed problems collaboratively and, in the meantime, students who needed remediation were provided with extra instruction. However, unquestionably, more information is needed before drawing a more definitive conclusion about the overall and relative effects of different approaches to differentiated instruction in secondary schools. The following inclusion criteria were used to select the relevant papers. Moreover, school characteristics matter. Differentiated instruction involves the teacher adapting various elements in their classroom according to the needs of his or her students. Best-evidence synthesis: an alternative to meta-analytic and traditional reviews. doi: 10.1080/02783190802527356, Leo, J., and Puzio, K. (2016). Unfortunately, in the coaching sessions, teachers often did not discuss about issues of adapting to the diversity of students' skills and their pre-existing knowledge. Differentiated instruction in the classroom is a teaching strategy that involves varying lessons to meet the needs of all students. Psychol. How are the selected approaches to differentiated instruction operationalized? In the case of differentiated instruction, teacher-level variables like education, professional development and personal characteristics like knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values and self-efficacy may influence their behavior (Tomlinson, 1995; Tomlinson et al., 2003; Kiley, 2011; De Jager, 2013; Parsons et al., 2013; Dixon et al., 2014; De Neve and Devos, 2016; Suprayogi et al., 2017; Stollman, 2018). “Meta-analyses of school and instructional effectiveness,” in Educational Effectiveness and Ineffectiveness, ed J. Scheerens (Dordrecht: Springer Science + Business Media), 175–223. Developing teachers' self-efficacy and adaptive teaching behaviour through lesson study. Mapping a route toward differentiated instruction. Methods for dealing with multiple outcomes in meta-analysis: a comparison between averaging effect sizes, robust variance estimation and multilevel meta-analysis. The Reviewer's Guide to Quantitative Methods in the Social Sciences. J. Res. Res. Educ. Differentiation is an approach that encourages teachers to respond to relevant differences among individuals while maintaining high expectations for all. (2009). 34, 365–394. Personalization vs. Differentiation vs. Individualization. Read. Available online at: http://www.lyonsmorris.com/lyons/metaAnalysis/index.cfm, Ma, W., Adesope, O. O., Nesbit, J. C., and Liu, Q. Res. 2. 12. Oefent een leerling meer door niveaudifferentiatie? We transformed all outcomes on student achievement from the selected papers to Cohen's d, which is the standardized mean difference between groups (Petticrew and Roberts, 2006; Borenstein et al., 2009). Teachers ' teaching behaviour through lesson study Health Organiasation ( 2011 ),. 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